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CONTENTS of entire timeline

CONTENTS of 59,999,999 BC- 51,000 BC Large land and aquatic mammals appear; many kinds of primates appear (almost as many go extinct); an island continent finally disappears for good; the Mediterranean valley turns into the Mediterranean Sea; human beings emerge, develop housing, clothes, lamps, and drugs, breed dogs, use horses; Mars dies (or goes dormant)

This page last updated on or about 10-31-05
a - j r m o o n e y h a m . c o m - o r i g i n a l


Approximately 148,000 BC- 98,000 BC: A relatively small migration of modern humans leaves Africa

By 1999 AD this and other events will have left native Africans with much greater diversity in genetic composition compared to much of the rest of humanity. 1999 AD native Europeans and Mideastern populations will possess the next greatest degree of genetic diversity, while native Americans will possess the least. This would appear logical, and in line with current notions of which continents were settled in what order in prehistory. The most far ranging humans which settled the Americas last of all would have endured passage through more evolutionary challenges and filters than any other faction-- thereby pruning their genetic diversity to its 1999 levels. Plus, it should be kept in mind that the small subset of human ancestors which leave Africa at this time (148,000 BC- 98,000 BC) will possess only a small subset of the genetic diversity of the whole African population-- thus offering considerably less genetic diversity for their descendents to draw upon in their subsequent migrations.

-- Little-Explored African Genetic Diversity May Hold Key To Human Origins, Medical Questions, 22 JANUARY 1999, Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer, aem1@psu.edu, 814-865-9481, Penn State

These differences in genetic diversity would seem to indicate that in any given worldwide epidemic the average native African is likely to possess a greater chance of survival than representatives of other human populations.

A bottleneck of only some 2000 individuals in a breeding population seems to have marked the earliest beginnings of the modern human species. Of the roughly 1000 women expected to be among these progenitors, only one would give birth to children whose lineage would continue to survive on to modern times, by 2000 AD forming the whole of the human race.

This original pool of 2000 breeders likely lived in Africa. They seem to have splintered into two or more separate groups sometime after around 142,000 BC.

European lineages indicate an arrival of modern humans in Europe around 49,000 BC- 37,000 BC (archaeological relics indicate arrival no later than 33,000 BC).

The source cited below gives a date of around 48,000 BC for the first modern humans leaving Africa. It is speculated the first groups each consisted of perhaps a few hundred hunter-gatherers.

-- The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves ["http://partners.nytimes.com/library/national/science/050200sci-genetics-evolution.html"] By NICHOLAS WADE, May 2, 2000, The New York Times Company

The oldest human fossils in the world are found in Africa.

By approximately 1,700,000 BC Homo erectus (or possibly Homo ergaster) is in the Republic of Georgia. Homo erectus evolved around 2,000,000 BC, and were so different from their predecessors that they likely changed lifestyles and territories pretty rapidly-- possibly leading to long range migrations. One major factor was a new independence from vegetation in their diet; these new peoples were more prone to eating meat than those they succeeded.

-- Ancient Exodus BY MICHAEL D. LEMONICK, REPORTED BY SORA SONG/NEW YORK, Time magazine, SCIENCE MAY 22, 2000 VOL. 155 NO. 21 VISIONS 21

It may be that in the early part of this period some old, injured, sick, outcast, or young orphan wolves begin to attach themselves to the outskirts of human camps for easier scavenging and to regain some of the social companionship they lost when they were ejected from their packs or otherwise split from their own orders.

It may be the singing and music of the camps remind the wolves of the chorus of their native packs.

The typically lone wolves soon learn not to anger the humans of the camps, and to keep a respectful distance, basically living off the trash the humans throw outside camp, or leave behind as they move on. These wolves of course tend to follow the nomadic human families now, staying on the lookout for food scraps. Staying near the camps also offer the wolves some protection from other predators.

As the wolves grow more dependent on the camps and their humans, they naturally begin to take on guard duties at the fringe, barking an alert whenever a strange human or beast approaches. Such a combination challenge/alert not only fits in well with its natural territorial instincts, but possibly increases activity in the nearby camp too, which all by itself will serve to frighten off some intruders. After awhile the humans realize the value in such sentinals, plus like the way the wolves help keep the camp and its outskirts cleared of trash. Such trash clearing all by itself helps minimize the attraction of unwanted predators and scavengers likely much worse than a semi-friendly wolf or two.

Another good thing about the fringe wolves is that in a pinch they too can be killed for food. So the humans regard them as sentinals, trash disposals, and emergency food supplies. When camp wolf killing becomes necessary, the people naturally tend to kill those wolves which are most difficult to get along with first.

Eventually enough of these camp fringe wolves accumulate to breed, and those pups best able to get along with the nearby humans live to reproduce again, while others do not. Thus, the genetic engineering of wolves into dogs begins.

-- Man's trash was likely dog's lure by Phil and Nancy Seff, November 10, 1999, Deseret News Science/Technology, http://deseretnews.com/, Man's trash was likely dog's lure (http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/1,1249,125015089,00.html?)

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