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CONTENTS of entire timeline

CONTENTS of 59,999,999 BC- 51,000 BC Large land and aquatic mammals appear; many kinds of primates appear (almost as many go extinct); an island continent finally disappears for good; the Mediterranean valley turns into the Mediterranean Sea; human beings emerge, develop housing, clothes, lamps, and drugs, breed dogs, use horses; Mars dies (or goes dormant)

This page last updated on or about 10-31-05
a - j r m o o n e y h a m . c o m - o r i g i n a l


Approximately 400,000 BC: Hominids are using covered wood shelters in the vicinity of France, and sophistocated throwing spears to kill big game

Neanderthals inhabit the region of eurasia at this time.

-- page 551, World History, The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1996, World Almanac Books

Neanderthals endure a harsh life during this time.

-- `Eco-noble savages' who never were: Prehistory contains many examples of people driving animal species to extinction, explains James Steele, British Archaeology, no 12, March 1996: Features, British Archaeology homepage

In Germany human predecessors around 400,000 BC to 350,000 BC appear to be using wooden spears to hunt horses and other big game. The spear designs seem quite advanced, being something similar to 20th century javelins. Thus, they appear to be throwing weapons.

-- German mine yields ancient hunting spears by B. Bower, Science News Online, March 1, 1997, http://www.sciencenews.org

The primate hypoglossal canal is the entry hole in the base of the skull for the spinal cord, as well as the place where a nerve bundle extends from the brain to the tongue. Thus, its size may be important to its owner in terms of complex speech potential-- at least where such potential depends upon tongue control. It appears the hypoglossal canal in human ancestors has by now already enlarged to a size comparable to that which will be enjoyed by 20th century humanity. This may suggest that complex language capacities now (400,000 BC) exist in humanity-- at least theoretically and physiologically speaking. Neanderthals also/will own a similar sized canal. However, as of 1998 there remained some uncertainty among scientists in regards to the canal size's true importance to complex speech.

-- Paleoanthropology (revised 16 December 1999) by Francis F. Steen, Department of English, University of California at Santa Barbara, http://cogweb.english.ucsb.edu/EP/Paleoanthropology.html

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